increasing maternal age
Increasing Maternal Age
February 3, 2022
Endometriosis – Indian Women at Risk of this Epidemic
July 5, 2023


PCOD is a medical condition that affects menstruation, fertility and the overall appearance of the woman. It is a genetic condition caused by hormonal dysfunction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic disorders in premenopausal women. Heterogeneous by nature, PCOS is defined by a combination of signs and symptoms of androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction in the absence of other specific diagnoses

Riya Shah 19 years old came in for a consultation with a sonography report stating that she had PCOD

She and her mother were almost in tears and visibly affected by the report.

Upon detailed clinical evaluation, it was detected that she had irregular periods, excessive hair growth on her face and back, weight gain and acne

Incidence of PCOD -It is estimated that nearly 20% of all Indian women, that is, about 1 out of 5 women in the country, suffer from PCOD.

What is PCOD?

Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) is a medical condition in which a woman’s ovaries generate immature or partially mature eggs in large numbers during reproductive age. These eggs develop into cysts in the ovaries over time. Due to the cysts, ovaries become large & secrete large amounts of male hormones that is testosterone which causes infertility problems, irregular periods, unwanted weight gain, and other health issues

Difference Between PCOD and PCOS

PCOS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and PCOD Polycystic Ovarian Disease are often used interchangeably.

PCOD is a medical condition where the women’s ovaries produce immaturity which transforms into cysts.

Women who suffer from PCOD experience mild to moderate symptoms. These symptoms can be managed with diet, lifestyle changes, and medication.

PCOS is a more severe condition where the ovaries produce a high quantity of male hormones, resulting in excess cyst formation.

PCOS is inherently a metabolic disorder. There is a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and uterus and breast cancers. Women suffering from PCOS may require infertility treatments

If you experience any of the symptoms associated with PCOD, it is important to consult an expert gynaecologist


The exact cause of PCOD is not known but it is both genetic, environmental and endocrinological

The aetiology of this syndrome remains largely unknown, but mounting evidence suggests that PCOS might be a complex multigenic disorder with strong epigenetic and environmental influences, including diet and lifestyle factors

An unhealthy Lifestyle is the commonest cause

A sedentary lifestyle
A diet comprising junk food, unhealthy food preferences
Stress. Women suffering from PCOS may require infertility treatments and active treatment protocols to manage other health conditions that they may develop Physiological Changes of PCOD-Excess Insulin Production stimulates the body to increase the production of androgen which inhibits ovulation. Also, Inflammation is another factor – low-grade inflammation in the body increases the androgen levels in the body. with increased facial,body hair, and acne outbreaks and may also cause cardiovascular changes in the body
Investigation and tests

Blood tests for assessing hormonal levels, blood sugar, insulin and other tests

Pelvic ultrasound to visualise the ovaries


Necessary treatment for Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) involves both medication and lifestyle changes.

Diet modification can go a long way in managing symptoms. Even a 5% reduction in body weight can help reduce the symptoms significantly. Eliminating sugars and fatty foods can help
regular exercise is a very essential
Cyclic hormonal treatment and ovulation induction medication can help regulate the menstrual cycle.
Skin treatment can help reduce acne and the darkening of the skin.
Laparoscopic surgery whenever indicated
Infertility treatment may be required If you have been diagnosed with Pcod it is important to visit an expert gynaecologist Even though there is no permanent cure for PCOD, most women can lead relatively normal and active lives with lifestyle modification and treatment